It is common for children to have occasional nosebleeds. Some may even have as many as two or three each week and while they may be frightening, they very rarely cause serious problems.
Nosebleeds usually occur when your child's nasal passages are dry or irritated from allergies or an upper respiratory tract infection. Rarely, a blood clotting disorder can cause frequent nosebleeds, but your child will usually have other bleeding problems or easy bruising and other family members will have similar problems.
During a nosebleed, while your child is sitting or standing, have him lean forward and put firm pressure on his nose by squeezing the tip of his nose. Keep firm pressure for ten full minutes and then release your hold and see if it is still bleeding. If the bleeding hasn't stopped, apply pressure for another ten minutes. Call your physician if doesn't stop. Be sure to keep pressure for the full ten minutes and do not stop early to check to see if it has stopped.
Things that usually won't stop a nosebleed include squeezing the bridge or middle part of your child's nose, putting an ice pack on the bridge of his nose, or holding a tissue over his nostrils without any pressure so that the blood keeps coming out. Also, leaning backwards during a nosebleed is not recommeded, since that may lead to your child swallowing blood and choking.
You can prevent nosebleeds by treating allergies when necessary, moisturizing your child's nasal passages by placing a nasal gel or saline spray inside each nostril, or using a humidifier (but keep in mind that this may make allergies worse, since humidifiers can increase dust mites and mold). Also avoid aspirin and encourage your child to not pick his nose.
Your doctor may check for an abnormal blood vessel or growth in your child's nose if the bleeding persists or may do blood test to check for a bleeding disorder if one is suspected.
It is important to remember that nosebleeds usually aren't very serious and it is unlikely that your child will loose enough blood to cause any medical problems.